Hybrids and Alternative Fuels
Plug-in hybrids (PHEV) are a halfway house between conventional hybrids and a fully electric vehicle. As the name suggests, you can either plug in the car to charge as well as being able to charge on the move. The PHEV can go longer distances on pure battery, up to 30 miles in some cases.
A parallel hybrid is what most people think of when they initially think of hybrids. It can run its internal combustion engine (ICE), electric motor or a combination of both. Parallel hybrids are best for stop-start city driving as the electric engine runs up to 15 mph before the ICE kicks in later. Whenever you brake or decelerate the battery stores the power for the next time, you need it. Most parallel hybrids have a smaller battery and rely on the regenerative braking to power the car. As they use battery-less, most can only go 1.25 miles on a full battery.
Range extender hybrids only have a ICE engine to recharge the electric motor. The ICE engine never actually drives, it just extends the range of the car. The battery can be driven by itself, but will require a charge to boost it up. Range extenders do tend to consume a lot of fuel and some owners have said they’ve filled up every 90 miles or so when doing a long trip.
Hydrogen is also a more efficient fuel in a fuel cell than combustion engines, up to three times more efficient in some reports. Some diesels are able to run on a hydrogen/diesel mix, reducing emissions considerably.